Rabu, 02 Desember 2009

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Three-phase pole-mounted step-down transformer.

Trafo nyaéta hiji alat listrik nu kagunaannana pikeun mindahkeun énérgi listrik ti hiji sirkuit ka sirkuit séjénna ngaliwatan gulungan-gulungan kawat anu babarengan diinduksi ku hiji medan magnét. Hiji trafo diwangun ku hiji inti (biasana tina beusi) sarta dua gulungan atawa leuwih nu dibeulitkeun kana inti. Arus bulak-balik dina salasahiji gulungan ngabangkitkeun médan magnét nu robah-robah dina jero intina, numana ahirna ngainduksi (ngarangsang ngabangkitkeun) tegangan dina gulungan liana. Trafo dipaké keur naékkeun atawa nurunkeun tegangan atawa arus listrik, keur ngarobah impedansi, sarta keur nyadiakeun isolasi listrik antar rangkéan.
Daptar eusi

* 1 Sawangan
o 1.1 Analogi
* 2 Prinsip dasar
o 2.1 Coupling by mutual induction
o 2.2 Analisis dasar
o 2.3 Analisis trafo bulak-balik
o 2.4 Arus saarah
o 2.5 Persamaan emf unifersal
* 3 Panimuan
* 4 Pertimbangan parktis
o 4.1 Klasifikasi
o 4.2 Lambang sirkuit
o 4.3 Karugian
o 4.4 Operasi dina frékuénsi nu béda
* 5 Construksi
o 5.1 Inti
+ 5.1.1 Inti waja
+ 5.1.2 Inti padet
+ 5.1.3 Inti udara
+ 5.1.4 Inti toroid
o 5.2 Beulitan
o 5.3 Isolasi
o 5.4 Shielding
o 5.5 Paniis
o 5.6 Terminal
o 5.7 Lampiran
* 6 Tipe trafo
o 6.1 Autotrafo
o 6.2 Trafo polifase
o 6.3 Trafo résonansi
o 6.4 Trafo instrumén
+ 6.4.1 Trafo arus
+ 6.4.2 Trafo tegangan
o 6.5 Trafo pulse
o 6.6 Trafo RF (trafo jalur transmisi)
+ 6.6.1 Baluns
* 7 Trafo audio
o 7.1 Trafo speaker
* 8 Kagunaan trafo
* 9 Tempo ogé
* 10 Tumbu luar
* 11 Référénsi

[édit] Sawangan
Panneau travaux.png Artikel ieu keur dikeureuyeuh, ditarjamahkeun tina basa Inggris.
Bantosanna diantos kanggo narjamahkeun.

The transformer is one of the simplest of electrical devices. Its basic design has not changed over the last one hundred years, yet transformer designs and materials continue to be improved. Transformers are essential for high voltage power transmission, which makes long distance transmission economically practical. This advantage was the principal factor in the selection of alternating current power transmission in the "War of Currents" in the late 1880s.

Audio frequency transformers (at the time called repeating coils) were used by the earliest experimenters in the development of the telephone. While some electronics applications of the transformer have been made obsolete by new technologies, transformers are still found in many electronic devices.

Transformers come in a range of sizes from a thumbnail-sized coupling transformer hidden inside a stage microphone to huge gigawatt units used to interconnect large portions of national power grids. All operate with the same basic principles and with many similarities in their parts.
Single phase pole-mounted step-down transformer

Transformers alone cannot do the following:

* Convert DC to AC or vice versa
* Change the voltage or current of DC
* Change the AC supply frequency.

However, transformers are components of the systems that perform all these functions.
[édit] Analogi

The transformer may be considered as a simple two-wheel 'gearbox' for electrical voltage and current. The primary winding is analogous to the input shaft and the secondary winding to the output shaft. In this analogy, current is equivalent to shaft speed, voltage to shaft torque. In a gearbox, mechanical power (torque multiplied by speed) is constant (neglecting losses) and is equivalent to electrical power (voltage multiplied by current) which is also constant.

The gear ratio is equivalent to the transformer step-up or step-down ratio. A step-up transformer acts analogously to a reduction gear (in which mechanical power is transferred from a small, rapidly rotating gear to a large, slowly rotating gear): it trades current (speed) for voltage (torque), by transferring power from a primary coil to a secondary coil having more turns. A step-down transformer acts analogously to a multiplier gear (in which mechanical power is transferred from a large gear to a small gear): it trades voltage (torque) for current (speed), by transferring power from a primary coil to a secondary coil having fewer turns.
[édit] Prinsip dasar
[édit] Coupling by mutual induction

A simple transformer consists of two electrical conductors called the primary winding and the secondary winding. Energy is coupled between the windings by the time-varying magnetic flux that passes through (links) both primary and secondary windings.When the current in a coil is switched on or off or changed, a voltage is induced in a neighbouring coil. The effect, called mutual inductance, is an example of electromagnetic induction.
[édit] Analisis dasar
Practical transformer showing magnetising flux in the core

If a time-varying voltage {v_P}\, is applied to the primary winding of N_P\, turns, a current will flow in it producing a magnetomotive force (MMF). Just as an electromotive force (EMF) drives current around an electric circuit, so MMF tries to drive magnetic flux through a magnetic circuit. The primary MMF produces a varying magnetic flux \Phi_P\, in the core, and, with an open circuit secondary winding, induces a back electromotive force (EMF) in opposition to {v_P}\, . In accordance with Faraday's law of induction, the voltage induced across the primary winding is proportional to the rate of change of flux:

{v_P} = {N_P} \frac {d \Phi_P}{dt} and {v_S} = {N_S} \frac {d \Phi_S}{dt}


* vP and vS are the voltages across the primary winding and secondary winding,
* NP and NS are the numbers of turns in the primary winding and secondary winding,
* dΦP / dt and dΦS / dt are the derivatives of the flux with respect to time of the primary and secondary windings.

Saying that the primary and secondary windings are perfectly coupled is equivalent to saying that \Phi_P = \Phi_S\, . Substituting and solving for the voltages shows that:



* vp and vs are voltages across primary and secondary,

* Np and Ns are the numbers of turns in the primary and secondary , respectively.

Hence in an ideal transformer, the ratio of the primary and secondary voltages is equal to the ratio of the number of turns in their windings, or alternatively, the voltage per turn is the same for both windings. The ratio of the currents in the primary and secondary circuits is inversely proportional to the turns ratio. This leads to the most common use of the transformer: to convert electrical energy at one voltage to energy at a different voltage by means of windings with different numbers of turns. In a practical transformer, the higher-voltage winding will have more turns, of smaller conductor cross-section, than the lower-voltage windings.

The EMF in the secondary winding, if connected to an electrical circuit, will cause current to flow in the secondary circuit. The MMF produced by current in the secondary opposes the MMF of the primary and so tends to cancel the flux in the core. Since the reduced flux reduces the EMF induced in the primary winding, increased current flows in the primary circuit. The resulting increase in MMF due to the primary current offsets the effect of the opposing secondary MMF. In this way, the electrical energy fed into the primary winding is delivered to the secondary winding. Also because of this, the flux density will always stay the same as long as the primary voltage is steady.

For example, suppose a power of 50 watts is supplied to a resistive load from a transformer with a turns ratio of 25:2.

* P = EI (power = electromotive force × current)

50 W = 2 V × 25 A in the primary circuit if the load is a resistive load. (See note 1)

* Now with transformer change:

50 W = 25 V × 2 A in the secondary circuit.

[édit] Analisis trafo bulak-balik

This treats the windings as a pair of mutually coupled coils with both primary and secondary windings passing currents. In an ideal transformer the primary MMF must equal the secondary MMF, and since these are in opposite directions, they oppose so that there is no overall resultant flux in the core. That this is so can be seen by realising that any unopposed primary emf would create a large primary current and therefore a large flux in the core due to the primary winding. However, this large flux would necessarily cause a large current to flow in the secondary circuit and this current must create an opposing flux that effectively cancels the initiating primary flux.

In a non-ideal transformer, the resultant flux in the core is that needed to magnetise the core. This is called the magnetising flux.
[édit] Arus saarah

Transformers should not be driven with DC nor, generally, have any DC component present at the input. Relatively small amounts of direct current can cause core saturation and thus prevent proper operation. Also, since a DC voltage source would not give a time-varying flux in the core, no induced counter-EMF would be generated and so current flow into the transformer would be limited only by the series resistance of the windings. In this situation, the transformer would heat until the transformer either reaches thermal equilibrium or is destroyed. This principle is actually exploited when large power transformers must be dried (have condensation and other water removed from their windings) — they are simply heated using DC.

For the same reason, transformers should generally not have DC components present in their output windings. A notable violation of this rule occurs with half-wave rectifiers, where the transformer winding must also carry the DC load current; these circuits are usually used in low-power applications because of this. Full-wave rectifiers, by comparison, do not require direct current to flow through the transformer and so are capable of much higher power levels.
[édit] Persamaan emf unifersal

If the flux in the core is sinusoidal, the relationship for either winding between its number of turns, voltage, magnetic flux density and core cross-sectional area is given by the universal emf equation (from Faraday's law):

E={\frac {2 \pi f N a B} {\sqrt{2}}} \!=4.44 f N a B


* E is the sinusoidal rms or root mean square voltage of the winding,
* f is the frequency in hertz,
* N is the number of turns of wire on the winding,
* a is the cross-sectional area of the core in square metres
* B is the peak magnetic flux density in teslas
* P is the power in volt amperes or watts,

Other consistent systems of units can be used with the appropriate conversions in the equation.
[édit] Panimuan

Those credited with the invention of the transformer include:

* Michael Faraday, who invented an 'induction ring' on August 29 1831. This was the first transformer, although Faraday used it only to demonstrate the principle of electromagnetic induction and did not foresee the use to which it would eventually be put.
* Lucien Gaulard and John Dixon Gibbs, who first exhibited a device called a 'secondary generator' in London in 1881 and then sold the idea to American company Westinghouse. This may have been the first practical power transformer. They also exhibited the invention in Turin in 1884, where it was adopted for an electric lighting system. Their early devices used an open iron core, which was soon abandoned in favour of a more efficient circular core with a closed magnetic path.


* William Stanley, an engineer for Westinghouse, who built the first practical device in 1885 after George Westinghouse bought Gaulard and Gibbs' patents. The core was made from interlocking E-shaped iron plates. This design was first used commercially in 1886.
* Hungarian engineers Károly Zipernowsky, Ottó Bláthy and Miksa Déri at the Ganz company in Budapest in 1885, who created the efficient "ZBD" model based on the design by Gaulard and Gibbs.
* Nikola Tesla in 1891 invented the Tesla coil, which is a high-voltage, air-core, dual-tuned resonant transformer for generating very high voltages at high frequency.

Many others have patents on transformers.
[édit] Pertimbangan parktis
[édit] Klasifikasi

Transformers are adapted to numerous engineering applications and may be classified in many ways:

* By power level (from fraction of a volt-ampere(VA) to over a thousand MVA),
* By application (power supply, impedance matching, circuit isolation),
* By frequency range (power, audio, radio frequency(RF))
* By voltage class (a few volts to about 750 kilovolts)
* By cooling type (air cooled, oil filled, fan cooled, water cooled, etc.)
* By purpose (distribution, rectifier, arc furnace, amplifier output, etc.).
* By ratio of the number of turns in the coils

* Step-up

The secondary has more turns than the primary.

* Step-down

The secondary has fewer turns than the primary.

* Isolating

Intended to transform from one voltage to the same voltage. The two coils have approximately equal numbers of turns, although often there is a slight difference in the number of turns, in order to compensate for losses (otherwise the output voltage would be a little less than, rather than the same as, the input voltage).

* Variable

The primary and secondary have an adjustable number of turns which can be selected without reconnecting the transformer.

[édit] Lambang sirkuit

Standard symbols
Transformer with two windings and iron core.
Transformer with three windings.
The dots show the relative winding configuration of the windings.
Step-down or step-up transformer.

The symbol shows which winding has more turns,
but does not usually show the exact ratio.
Transformer with electrostatic screen,
which prevents capacitive coupling between the windings.
[édit] Karugian

An ideal transformer would have no losses, and would therefore be 100% efficient. In practice, energy is dissipated due both to the resistance of the windings known as copper loss or I2 R loss, and to magnetic effects primarily attributable to the core (known as iron loss measured in watts per pound). Transformers are, in general, highly efficient. Large power transformers (over 50 MVA) may attain an efficiency as high as 99.75%. Small transformers, such as a plug-in "power brick" used to power small consumer electronics, may be less than 85% efficient.

Transformer losses arise from:

* Winding resistance

Current flowing through the windings causes resistive heating of the conductors (I2 R loss). At higher frequencies, skin effect and proximity effect create additional winding resistance and losses.

* Eddy currents

Induced eddy currents circulate within the core, causing resistive heating. Silicon is added to the steel to help in controlling eddy currents. Adding silicon also has the advantage of stopping aging of the electrical steel that was a problem years ago.

* Hysteresis losses

Each time the magnetic field is reversed, a small amount of energy is lost to hysteresis within the magnetic core. The amount of hysteresis is a function of the particular core material.

* Magnetostriction

Magnetic flux in the core causes it to physically expand and contract slightly with the alternating magnetic field, an effect known as magnetostriction. This in turn causes losses due to frictional heating in susceptible ferromagnetic cores.

* Mechanical losses

In addition to magnetostriction, the alternating magnetic field causes fluctuating electromagnetic forces between the primary and secondary windings. These incite vibrations within nearby metalwork, creating a familiar humming or buzzing noise, and consuming a small amount of power.

* Stray losses

Not all the magnetic field produced by the primary is intercepted by the secondary. A portion of the leakage flux may induce eddy currents within nearby conductive objects, such as the transformer's support structure, and be converted to heat.

* Cooling system

Large power transformers may be equipped with cooling fans, oil pumps or water-cooled heat exchangers designed to remove the heat caused by copper and iron losses. The power used to operate the cooling system is typically considered part of the losses of the transformer.
[édit] Operasi dina frékuénsi nu béda

The equation shows that the EMF of a transformer at a given flux density increases with frequency. By operating at higher frequencies, transformers can be physically more compact without reaching saturation, and a given core is able to transfer more power. However, other properties of the transformer such as losses due to the core and skin-effect also increase with frequency. Generally, operation of a transformer at it's designed voltage but at a higher frequency than will lead to reduced magnetising (no load primary) current. At a frequency lower than the design value, with the rated voltage applied, the magnetising current may increase to an excessive level.

Steel cores develop a larger hysteresis loss due to eddy currents as the operating frequency is increased. Ferrite, or thinner steel laminations for the core are typically used for frequencies above 1kHz. The thinner steel laminations serve to reduce the eddy currents. Some types of very thin steel laminations can be ran up to 10 kHz or more. Ferrite is used in higher frequencies up to the VHF band and beyond. Aircraft traditionally use 400 Hz power systems since the slight increase in thermal losses is more than offset by reduced weight. Military gear includes 400 Hz (and other frequencies) to supply power for radar or servomechanisms.

Flyback transformers are built using ferrite cores. They supply high voltage to the CRTs at the frequency of the horizontal oscillator. In the case of television sets, this is about 15.7kHz. It may be as high as 75 - 120kHz for high-resolution computer monitors.

Switching power supply transformers usually operate between 50-1000 kHz. The tiny cores found in wristwatch backlight power supplies produce audible sound (about 1 kHz).

Operation of a power transformer at other than its design frequency may require assessment of voltages, losses, and cooling to establish if safe operation is practical. For example, transformers at hydroelectric generating stations may be equipped with over-excitation protection, so-called "volts per hertz" protection relays, to protect the transformer from overvoltage at higher-than-rated frequency which may occur if a generator loses its connected load.
[édit] Construksi
[édit] Inti
[édit] Inti waja
Laminated core transformer showing edge of laminations at top of unit.

Transformers for use at power or audio frequencies have cores made of many thin laminations of silicon steel. By concentrating the magnetic flux, more of it is usefully linked by both primary and secondary windings. Since the steel core is conductive, it, too, has currents induced in it by the changing magnetic flux. Each layer is insulated from the adjacent layer to reduce the energy lost to eddy current heating of the core. The thin laminations are used to reduce the eddy currents, and the insulation is used to keep the laminations from acting as a solid piece of steel. The thinner the laminations, the lower the eddy currents, and the lower the losses. Very thin laminations are generally used on high frequency transformers. The cost goes up when using thinner laminations mainly over the labor in stacking them. A typical laminated core is made from E-shaped and I-shaped pieces, leading to the name "EI transformer". There is other types such as the C-core or "cut core" transformer. In the EI transformer, the laminations are stacked in what is known as an interleaved fashion. This is where the E and I pieces are staggered while stacking to reduce any gap. If a gap is needed, all the E's are stacked on one side, and all the I's on the other creating a gap.

The cut core or C-core is made by winding a silicon steel strip around a rectangular form. After the required thickness is achieved, it is removed from the form and the laminations are bonded together. It is then cut in two forming two C shapes. The faces of the cuts are then ground smooth so they fit very tight with a very small gap to reduce losses. To use a C-core, a coil is wound which is then placed over a leg of one half of the core. The core is then assembled by placing the two C halves together, and holding them closed by a steel strap. In this type of core, the coil will be on one leg, and the other is bare. There is shell type cores available which are similar to the EI cores.

A steel core's remanence means that it retains a static magnetic field when power is removed. When power is then reapplied, the residual field will cause a high inrush current until the effect of the remanent magnetism is reduced, usually after a few cycles of the applied alternating current. Overcurrent protection devices such as fuses must be selected to allow this harmless inrush to pass. On transformers connected to long overhead power transmission lines, induced currents due to geomagnetic disturbances during solar storms can cause saturation of the core, and false operation of transformer protection devices.

Distribution transformers can achieve low off-load losses by using cores made with low loss high permeability silicon steel and amorphous (non-crystalline) steel, so-called "metal glasses" — the high cost of the core material is offset by the lower losses incurred at light load, over the life of the transformer. In order to maintain good voltage regulation, distribution transformers are designed to have very low leakage inductance.

Certain special purpose transformers use long magnetic paths, insert air gaps, or add magnetic shunts (which bypass a portion of magnetic flux that would otherwise link the primary and secondary windings) in order to intentionally add leakage inductance. The additional leakage inductance limits the secondary winding's short circuit current to a safe, or a controlled, level. This technique is used to stabilize the output current for loads that exhibit negative resistance such as electric arcs, mercury vapor lamps, and neon signs, or safely handle loads that may become periodically short-circuited such as electric arc welders. Gaps are also used to keep a transformer from saturating, especially audio transformers which have a DC component added.
[édit] Inti padet

Powdered iron cores are used in circuits (such as switch-mode power supplies) that operate above mains frequencies and up to a few tens of kilohertz. These materials combine high magnetic permeability with high bulk electrical resistivity.

At even higher, radio-frequencies (RF), other types of cores made from non-conductive magnetic ceramic materials, called ferrites, are common. Some RF transformers also have moveable cores (sometimes called slugs) which allow adjustment of the coupling coefficient (and bandwidth) of tuned radio-frequency circuits.
[édit] Inti udara

High-frequency transformers may also use air cores. These eliminate the loss due to hysteresis in the core material. Such transformers maintain high coupling efficiency (low stray field loss) by overlapping the primary and secondary windings.
[édit] Inti toroid
Various transformers. The top right is toroidal. The bottom right is from a 12 VAC wall wart supply.

Toroidal transformers are built around a ring-shaped core, which is made from a long strip of silicon steel or permalloy wound into a coil, from powdered iron, or ferrite, depending on operating frequency. The strip construction ensures that the grain boundaries are optimally aligned, improving the transformer's efficiency by reducing the core's reluctance. The closed ring shape eliminates air gaps inherent in the construction of an EI core. The cross-section of the ring is usually square or rectangular, but more expensive cores with circular cross-sections are also available. The primary and secondary coils are often wound concentrically to cover the entire surface of the core. This minimises the length of wire needed, and also provides screening to minimize the core's magnetic field from generating electromagnetic interference.

Ferrite toroid cores are used at higher frequencies, typically between a few tens of kilohertz to a megahertz, to reduce losses, physical size, and weight of switch-mode power supplies.

Toroidal transformers are more efficient than the cheaper laminated EI types of similar power level. Other advantages, compared to EI types, include smaller size (about half), lower weight (about half), less mechanical hum (making them superior in audio amplifiers), lower exterior magnetic field (about one tenth), low off-load losses (making them more efficient in standby circuits), single-bolt mounting, and more choice of shapes. This last point means that, for a given power output, either a wide, flat toroid or a tall, narrow one with the same electrical properties can be chosen, depending on the space available. The main disadvantages are higher cost and limited size.

A drawback of toroidal transformer construction is the higher cost of windings. As a consequence, toroidal transformers are uncommon above ratings of a few kVA. Small distribution transformers may achieve some of the benefits of a toroidal core by splitting it and forcing it open, then inserting a bobbin containing primary and secondary windings.

When fitting a toroidal transformer, it is important to avoid making an unintentional short-circuit through the core. This can happen if the steel mounting bolt in the middle of the core is allowed to touch metalwork at both ends, making a loop of conductive material which passes through the hole in the toroid. Such a loop could result in a dangerously large current flowing in the bolt.
[édit] Beulitan

The wire of the adjacent turns in a coil, and in the different windings, must be electrically insulated from each other. The wire used is generally magnet wire. Magnet wire is a copper wire with a coating of varnish or some other synthetic coating. Transformers for years have used Formvar wire which is a varnished type of magnet wire.

The conducting material used for the winding depends upon the application. Small power and signal transformers are wound with solid copper wire, insulated usually with enamel, and sometimes additional insulation. Larger power transformers may be wound with wire, copper, or aluminum rectangular conductors. Strip conductors are used for very heavy currents. High frequency transformers operating in the tens to hundreds of kilohertz will have windings made of Litz wire to minimize the skin effect losses in the conductors. Large power transformers use multiple-stranded conductors as well, since even at low power frequencies non-uniform distribution of current would otherwise exist in high-current windings. Each strand is insulated from the other, and the strands are arranged so that at certain points in the winding, or throughout the whole winding, each portion occupies different relative positions in the complete conductor. This "transposition" equalizes the current flowing in each strand of the conductor, and reduces eddy current losses in the winding itself. The stranded conductor is also more flexible than a solid conductor of similar size. (see reference (1) below)

For signal transformers, the windings may be arranged in a way to minimise leakage inductance and stray capacitance to improve high-frequency response. This can be done by splitting up each coil into sections, and those sections placed in layers between the sections of the other winding. This is known as a stacked type or interleaved winding.

Windings on both the primary and secondary of power transformers may have external connections (called taps) to intermediate points on the winding to allow adjustment of the voltage ratio. Taps may be connected to an automatic, on-load tap changer type of switchgear for voltage regulation of distribution circuits. Audio-frequency transformers, used for the distribution of audio to public address loudspeakers, have taps to allow adjustment of impedance to each speaker. A center-tapped transformer is often used in the output stage of an audio power amplifier in a push-pull type circuit. Modulation transformers in AM transmitters are very similar. Tapped transformers are also used as components of amplifiers, oscillators, and for feedback linearization of amplifier circuits.
[édit] Isolasi

The turns of the windings must be insulated from each other to ensure that the current travels through the entire winding. The potential difference between adjacent turns is usually small, so that enamel insulation is usually sufficient for small power transformers. In larger transformers additional layers of insulation are used.

The transformer may also be immersed in transformer oil that provides further to the insulation. The oil is primarily used to cool the transformer. By cooling the windings, the insulation will not break down as easy due to heat. To ensure that the insulating capability of the transformer oil does not deteriorate, the transformer casing is completely sealed against moisture ingress. Thus the oil serves as both a cooling medium to remove heat from the core and coil, and as part of the insulation system.

Certain power transformers have the windings protected by a layer of epoxy resin. This produces transformers suitable for damp or dirty environments, but at increased manufacturing cost.
[édit] Shielding

Where transformers are intended for minimum electrostatic coupling between primary and secondary circuits, an electrostatic shield can be placed between windings to reduce the capacitance between primary and secondary windings. The shield may be a single layer of metal foil, insulated where it overlaps to prevent it acting as a shorted turn, or a single layer winding between primary and secondary. The shield is connected to earth ground.

Transformers may also be enclosed by magnetic shields, electrostatic shields, or both to prevent outside interference from affecting the operation of the transformer, or to prevent the transformer from affecting the operation of other devices (such as CRTs near the transformer).
[édit] Paniis
Gambar:Transformer 01.jpg
Three phase dry-type transformer with cover removed; rated about 200 KVA, 480 V.

Small signal transformers do not generate significant amounts of heat. Power transformers rated up to a few kilowatts rely on natural convective air cooling. Specific provision must be made for cooling of high-power transformers. Transformers handling higher power, or having a high duty cycle can be fan-cooled.

Some dry transformers are enclosed in pressurized tanks and are cooled by nitrogen or sulfur hexafluoride gas.

The windings of high-power or high-voltage transformers are immersed in transformer oil — a highly-refined mineral oil, that is stable at high temperatures. Large transformers to be used indoors must use a non-flammable liquid. Formerly, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) was used as it was not a fire hazard in indoor power transformers and it is highly stable. Due to the stability and toxic effects of PCB byproducts, and its environmental accumulation, it is no longer permitted in new equipment. Old transformers which still contain PCB should be examined on a weekly basis for leakage. If found to be leaking, it should be changed out, and the the old one professionally discarded. Today, nontoxic, stable silicone-based oils, or fluorinated hydrocarbons may be used where the expense of a fire-resistant liquid offsets additional building cost for a transformer vault. Other less-flammable fluids such as canola oil may be used but all fire resistant fluids have some drawbacks in performance, cost, or toxicity compared with mineral oil.

The oil cools the transformer, and provides part of the electrical insulation between internal live parts. It has to be stable at high temperatures so that a small short or arc will not cause a breakdown or fire. The oil-filled tank may have radiators through which the oil circulates by natural convection. Very large or high-power transformers (with capacities of millions of watts) may have cooling fans, oil pumps and even oil to water heat exchangers. Oil-filled transformers undergo prolonged drying processes, using vapor-phase heat transfer, electrical self-heating, the application of a vacuum, or combinations of these, to ensure that the transformer is completely free of water vapor before the cooling oil is introduced. This helps prevent electrical breakdown under load.

Oil-filled power transformers may be equipped with Buchholz relays which are safety devices that sense gas build-up inside the transformer (a side effect of an electric arc inside the windings), and thus switches off the transformer.

Experimental power transformers in the 2 MVA range have been built with superconducting windings which eliminates the copper losses, but not the core steel loss. These are cooled by liquid nitrogen or helium.
[édit] Terminal

Very small transformers will have wire leads connected directly to the ends of the coils, and brought out to the base of the unit for circuit connections. Larger transformers may have heavy bolted terminals, bus bars or high-voltage insulated bushings made of polymers or porcelain. A large bushing can be a complex structure since it must provide electrical insulation without letting the transformer leak oil.
[édit] Lampiran

Small transformers often have no enclosure. Transformers may have a shield enclosure, as described above. Larger units may be enclosed to prevent contact with live parts, and to contain the cooling medium (oil or pressurized gas).
[édit] Tipe trafo
[édit] Autotrafo

Artikel utama: Autotrafo

An autotransformer has only a single winding, which is tapped at some point along the winding. AC or pulsed voltage is applied across a portion of the winding, and a higher (or lower) voltage is produced across another portion of the same winding. While theoretically separate parts of the winding can be used for input and output, in practice the higher voltage will be connected to the ends of the winding, and the lower voltage from one end to a tap. For example, a transformer with a tap at the center of the winding can be used with 230 volts across the entire winding, and 115 volts between one end and the tap. It can be connected to a 230 volt supply to drive 115 volt equipment, or reversed to drive 230 volt equipment from 115 volts. As the same winding is used for input and output, the flux in the core is partially cancelled, and a smaller core can be used. For voltage ratios not exceeding about 3:1, an autotransformer is cheaper, lighter, smaller and more efficient than a true (two-winding) transformer of the same rating.

In practice, transformer losses mean that autotransformers are not perfectly reversible; one designed for stepping down a voltage will deliver slightly less voltage than required if used to step up. The difference is usually slight enough to allow reversal where the actual voltage level is not critical.

By exposing part of the winding coils and making the secondary connection through a sliding brush, an autotransformer with a near-continuously variable turns ratio can be obtained, allowing for very small increments of voltage.
[édit] Trafo polifase

For three-phase power, three separate single-phase transformers can be used, or all three phases can be connected to a single polyphase transformer. The three primary windings are connected together and the three secondary windings are connected together. The most common connections are Y-Δ, Δ-Y, Δ-Δ and Y-Y. A vector group indicates the configuration of the windings and the phase angle difference between them. If a winding is connected to earth (grounded), the earth connection point is usually the center point of a Y winding. If the secondary is a Δ winding, the ground may be connected to a center tap on one winding (high leg delta) or one phase may be grounded (corner grounded delta). There are many possible configurations that may involve more or fewer than six windings and various tap connections.
[édit] Trafo résonansi

A resonant transformer is one that operates at the resonant frequency of one or more of its coils and, usually, an external capacitor. The resonant coil, usually the secondary, acts as an inductor, and is connected in series with a capacitor. If the primary coil is driven by a periodic source of alternating current, such as a square or Sawtooth wave , each pulse of current helps to build up an oscillation in the secondary coil. Due to resonance, a very high voltage can develop across the secondary, until it is limited by some process such as electrical breakdown. These devices are therefore used to generate high alternating voltages. The current available from this type of coil can be much larger than that from electrostatic machines such as the Van de Graaff generator and Wimshurst machine. They also run at a higher operating temperature than standard units.


* Tesla coil
* Oudin coil (or Oudin resonator; named after its inventor Paul Oudin)
* D'Arsonval apparatus
* Ignition coil or induction coil used in the ignition system of a petrol engine
* Flyback transformer of a CRT television set or video monitor.
* Electrical breakdown and insulation testing of high voltage equipment and cables

Other applications of resonant transformers are as coupling between stages of a superheterodyne receiver, where the selectivity of the receiver is provided by the tuned transformers of the intermediate-frequency amplifiers.

A voltage regulating transformer uses a resonant winding and allows part of the core to go into saturation on each cycle of the alternating current. This effect stabilizes the output of the regulating transformer, which can be used for equipment that is sensitive to variations of the supply voltage. Saturating transformers provide a simple rugged method to stabilize an ac power supply. However, due to the hysteresis losses accompanying this type of operation, efficiency is low.
[édit] Trafo instrumén
[édit] Trafo arus
Current transformers used in metering equipment for three-phase 400 ampere electricity supply

A current transformer is a type of "instrument transformer" that is designed to provide a current in its secondary which is accurately proportional to the current flowing in its primary.

Current transformers are commonly used in metering and protective relaying to facilitate the measurement of large currents and isolation of high voltage systems which would be difficult to measure more directly.

Current transformers are often constructed by passing a single primary turn (either an insulated cable or an uninsulated conductor (copper or aluminum are typical in electric utility applications) through a well-insulated toroidal core wrapped with many turns of wire. Current transformers (CTs) are used extensively in the electrical power industry for monitoring of the power grid. The CT is described by its current ratio from primary to secondary. Common secondaries are 1 or 5 amperes. The secondary winding can be single ratio or multi ratio, with five taps being common for multi ratio CTs. Typically, the secondary connection points are labeled as X1, X2 and so on. The multi ratio CTs are typically used for current matching in current differential protective relaying applications. Often, multiple CTs will be installed as a "stack" for various uses (for example, protection devices and revenue metering may use separate CTs). For a three-stacked CT application, the secondary winding connection points are typically labeled Xn, Yn, Zn.

Specially constructed wideband current transformers are also used (usually with an oscilloscope) to measure waveforms of high frequency or pulsed currents. One type of specially constructed wideband transformer provides a voltage output that is proportional to the measured current. Another type (called a Rogowski coil) requires an external integrator in order to provide a voltage output that is proportional to the measured current.

Care must be taken that the secondary of a current transformer is not disconnected from its load while current is flowing in the primary, as this will produce a dangerously high voltage across the open secondary.
[édit] Trafo tegangan

Voltage transformers (or potential transformers) are another type of instrument transformer, used for metering and protection in high-voltage circuits. They are designed to present negligible load to the supply being measured and to have a precise voltage ratio to accurately step down high voltages so that metering and protective relay equipment can be operated at a lower potential. Typically the secondary of a voltage transformer is rated for 69 or 120 Volts at rated primary voltage, to match the input ratings of protection relays.

The transformer winding high-voltage connection points are typically labelled as H1, H2 (sometimes H0 if it is internally grounded) and X1, X2, and sometimes an X3 tap may be present. Sometimes a second isolated winding (Y1, Y2, Y3) may also be available on the same voltage transformer. The high side (primary) may be connected phase to ground or phase to phase. The low side (secondary) is usually phase to ground.

The terminal identifications (H1, X1, Y1, etc.) are often referred to as polarity. This applies to current transformers as well. At any instant terminals with the same suffix numeral have the same polarity and phase. Correct identification of terminals and wiring is important for proper operation of metering and protection relays.
[édit] Trafo pulse

A pulse transformer is a transformer that is optimised for transmitting rectangular electrical pulses (that is, pulses with fast rise and fall times and a constant amplitude). Small versions called signal types are used in digital logic and telecommunications circuits, often for matching logic drivers to transmission lines. Medium-sized power versions are used in power-control circuits such as camera flash controllers. Larger power versions are used in the electrical power distribution industry to interface low-voltage control circuitry to the high-voltage gates of power semiconductors. Special high voltage pulse transformers are also used to generate high power pulses for radar, particle accelerators, or other pulsed power applications.

To minimise distortion of the pulse shape, a pulse transformer needs to have low values of leakage inductance and distributed capacitance, and a high open-circuit inductance. In power-type pulse transformers, a low coupling capacitance (between the primary and secondary) is important to protect the circuitry on the primary side from high-powered transients created by the load. For the same reason, high insulation resistance and high breakdown voltage are required. A good transient response is necessary to maintain the rectangular pulse shape at the secondary, because a pulse with slow edges would create switching losses in the power semiconductors.

The product of the peak pulse voltage and the duration of the pulse (or more accurately, the voltage-time integral) is often used to characterise pulse transformers. Generally speaking, the larger this product, the larger and more expensive the transformer.
[édit] Trafo RF (trafo jalur transmisi)

For radio frequency use, transformers are sometimes made from configurations of transmission line, sometimes bifilar or coaxial cable, wound around ferrite or other types of core. This style of transformer gives an extremely wide bandwidth but only a limited number of ratios (such as 1:9, 1:4 or 1:2) can be achieved with this technique.

The core material increases the inductance dramatically, thereby raising its Q factor. The cores of such transformers help improve performance at the lower frequency end of the band. RF transformers sometimes used a third coil (called a tickler winding) to inject feedback into an earlier (detector) stage in antique regenerative radio receivers.
[édit] Baluns

Baluns are transformers designed specifially to connect between balanced and unbalanced circuits. These are sometimes made from configurations of transmission line and sometimes bifilar or coaxial cable and are similar to transmission line transformers in construction and operation.
[édit] Trafo audio
Transformers in a tube amplifier. Output transformers are on the left. The power supply toroidal transformer is on right.

Audio transformers are usually the factor which limit sound quality; electronic circuits with wide frequency response and low distortion are relatively simple to design.

Transformers are also used in DI boxes to convert impedance from high-impedance instruments (for example, bass guitars) to enable them to be connected to a microphone input on the mixing console.

A particularly critical component is the output transformer of an audio power amplifier. Valve circuits for quality reproduction have long been produced with no other (inter-stage) audio transformers, but an output transformer is needed to couple the relatively high impedance (up to a few hundred ohms depending upon configutation) of the output valve(s) to the low impedance of a loudspeaker. (The valves can deliver a low current at a high voltage; the speakers require high current at low voltage.) Solid-state power amplifiers may need no output transformer at all.

For good low-frequency response a relatively large iron core is required; high power handling increases the required core size. Good high-frequency response requires carefully designed and implemented windings without excessive leakage inductance or stray capacitance. All this makes for an expensive component.

Output transformerless audio power valve amplifiers are possible, but were rarely used due to other disadvantages.

Early transistor audio power amplifiers often had output transformers, but they were eliminated as designers discovered how to design amplifiers without them.
[édit] Trafo speaker

In the same way that transformers are used to create high voltage power transmission circuits that minimize transmission losses, speaker transformers allow many individual loudspeakers to be powered from a single audio circuit operated at higher-than normal speaker voltages. This application is common in public address (e.g., Tannoy) applications. Such circuits are commonly referred to as constant voltage or 70 volt speaker circuits although the audio waveform is obviously a constantly changing voltage.

At the audio amplifier, a large audio transformer may be used to step-up the low impedance, low-voltage output of the amplifier to the designed line voltage of the speaker circuit. Then, a smaller transformer at each speaker returns the voltage and impedance to ordinary speaker levels. The speaker transformers commonly have multiple primary taps, allowing the volume at each speaker to be adjusted in a number of discrete steps.

Use of a constant-voltage speaker circuit means that there is no need to worry about the impedance presented to the amplifier output (which would clearly be too low if all of the speakers were arranged in parallel and would be too complex a design problem if the speakers were arranged in series-parallel). The use of higher transmission voltage and impedance means that power lost in the connecting wire is minimized, even with the use of small-gauge conductors (and leads to the term constant voltage as the line voltage doesn't change much as additional speakers are added to the system). Also, the ability to adjust, locally, the volume of each speaker (without the complexity and power loss of an L pad) is a useful feature.
[édit] Kagunaan trafo

* For supplying power from an alternating current power grid to equipment which uses a different voltage.
* Electric power transmission over long distances.
* Large, specially constructed power transformers are used for electric arc furnaces used in steelmaking.
* Rotating transformers are designed so that one winding turns while the other remains stationary. A common use was the video head system as used in VHS and Beta video tape players. These can pass power or radio signals from a stationary mounting to a rotating mechanism, or radar antenna.
* Sliding transformers can pass power or signals from a stationary mounting to a moving part such as a machine tool head.
* A transformer-like device is used for position measurement. See linear variable differential transformer.
* Some rotary transformers are used to couple signals between two parts which rotate in relation to each other.
* Other rotary transformers are precisely constructed in order to measure distances or angles. Usually they have a single primary and two or more secondaries, and electronic circuits measure the different amplitudes of the currents in the secondaries. See synchro and resolver.
* Small transformers are often used internally to couple different stages of radio receivers and audio amplifiers.
* Transformers may be used as external accessories for impedance matching; for example to match a microphone to an amplifier.
* Balanced-to-unbalanced conversion. A special type of transformer called a balun is used in radio and audio circuits to convert between balanced linecircuits and unbalanced transmission lines such as antenna downleads.


Kamis, 22 Oktober 2009

Sahlan Heluth
Artikel Terkait

* Darwin Janji Percepat Pembangunan Pembangkit Listrik
* Tahun Depan, IAEA Selesai Evaluasi PLTN Indonesia
* Warga Sulbar Terkena Pemadaman Bergilir

18/10/2009 03:53
Liputan6.com, Ambon: Pemadaman listrik bergilir membuat banyak warga Kota Ambon, Maluku, baru-baru ini, membeli generator set (genset). Sebagian besar pembeli adalah dari sektor usaha yang operasionalnya tergantung pada aliran listrik.

Kondisi ini tentu berkah bagi penjual genset. Setiap hari seorang penjual genset mengaku mampu belasan unit dagangannya sejak pemadaman listrik bergilir sejak dua pekan silam. Pemadaman listrik di Ambon berlangsung hingga empat jam setiap hari untuk masing-masing wilayah. Hal ini diberlakukan menyusul sejumlah pembangkit listrik yang rusak.

Perusahaan Listrik Negara Cabang Ambon mengaku masih memperbaiki dan belum bisa memastikan pemadaman bergilir berakhir. Namun diperkirakan perbaikan mesin pembangkit listri tenaga diesel itu memakan waktu hingga enam bulan. Waktu perbaikan membutuhkan waktu lama karena kerusakan tergolong berat setelah 20 tahun dipakai.(ZAQ) Selengkapnya...

Selasa, 04 Agustus 2009

"Agar Genset Anda Selalu Prima

“Agar Genset Anda Selalu Prima”

Generator set (genset) merupakan alat andalan di saat kesediaan listrik PLN tak memadai atau pun saat “byar-pet” kerap melanda. Namun, kerapkali kita dibuat repot saat genset tiba-tiba macet saat dibutuhkan.
Sebenarnya hal itu tak perlu terjadi bila saja kita mengetahui cara penggunaan yang tepat dan merawatnya secara teratur. Untuk itu, sangat penting mengenali lebih dini genset yang digunakan agar potensi kerugian atau pengeluaran biaya yang lebih besar dapat dicegah.

Langkah awal yang perlu diperhatikan dalam pengoperasian genset
antara lain, periksa dan pastikan selalu :
1. Kondisi & jumlah oli pelumas yang digunakan harus sesuai dengan yang
2. Kecukupan & kesesuaian bahan bakar yang digunakan (bensin, solar,
atau LPG)
3. Sambungan & kondisi accu/baterai (untuk yang menggunakan starter
4. Kondisi & kecukupan pendingin/coolant dalam radiator (umumnya tipe
diatas 5 kVA)
5. Kabel pembebanan tersambung ke jaringan/beban
6. Saklar MCB/breaker pembebanan pada posisi off
7. Saklar MCB/breaker PLN pada posisi off
8. Prosedur penyalaan genset :
A. Untuk genset bensin :
a. Posisikan saklar mesin/engine switch pada posisi on
b. Posisikan tuas pengatur udara/choke pada posisi on
c. Nyalakan generator & gunakan pengaturan gas agar kondisi start
d. Posisikan tuas pengatur udara/choke pada posisi off
B. Untuk genset diesel :
a. Posisikan kunci kontak pada posisi on & biarkan sejenak
b. Periksa voltase pada display 12 V atau 24 V (tergantung dari accu
yang dibutuhkan)
c. Nyalakan genset dengan memutar kunci kontak pada posisi start
9. Biarkan hidup tanpa beban selama ± 5-10 menit agar putaran stabil
10. Posisikan saklar MCB/breaker pembebanan pada posisi on
11. Prosedur mematikan generator :
A. Posisikan saklar MCB/breaker pembebanan pada posisi off
B. Biarkan selama ± 5 menit agar putaran kembali stabil &
menghabiskan gas buang
C. Posisikan saklar mesin/engine switch pada posisi off (untuk tipe
bensin) atau posisikan kunci kontak pada posisi off (untuk tipe diesel)







Agar masa pakai genset lebih panjang, perlu diperhatikan hal-hal berikut :
1. Waktu pemanasan awal. Biarkan mesin hidup ± 5-10 menit pertama setelah start, hal ini diperlukan agar putaran stabil.
2. Pembebanan. Sebaiknya gunakan pembebanan maksimum 80% dari kapasitasnya untuk menjaga agar tidak terjadi over
load saat ada beban kejut ringan
3. Pelumasan. Ganti pelumas setelah 20 jam pertama dan setiap 100 jam berikutnya
4. Pemanasan untuk perawatan. Jalankan genset minimal sekali seminggu selama ± 5-20 menit untuk menjaga kondisi accu
dan pelumasan di dalam unit mesin.
5. Sirkulasi udara. Letakkan unit pada tempat dengan sirkulasi udara yang baik atau tambahkan exhaust fan agar tidak
terjadi over heating pada genset.
Rubrik ini merupakan hasil kerjasama tim Kawan Lama. Kami menerima usulan maupun pertanyaan sejenis tentang tips dan trik seputar produk, peralatan teknik, dan industri, terutama yang didistribusikan oleh Kawan Lama. Selengkapnya...

Jumat, 31 Juli 2009

pengertian trafo

Dikenal dengan istilah trafo, adalah suatu alat elektronik yang memindahkan energi dari satu sirkuit elektronik ke sirkuit lainnya melalui pasangan magnet. Biasanya dipakai untuk mengubah tegangan listrik dari tinggi ke rendah dan berarti juga mengubah arus listrik dari rendah ke tinggi. Selengkapnya...


Apa kamu bosan dengan emoticon yang ada di shoutbox kamu? Nha biar nggak bosan kamu bisa menambahkan sendiri icon-icon (emoticon) kesayangan kamu kedalam shoutbox blog kamu. Mau tahu caranya? begini nih cara nya...
Oh ya, trik yang ini hanya untuk yang menggunakan shoutbox dari shoutmix.

Ikuti langkah-langkah berikut ini :
1. Login ke shoutmix.com
2. Trus di daerah menu "Display", klik link "Smileys"
3. Nha nanti kamu akan menjumpai tampilan seperti ini :

4. Untuk manambahkannya masukkan alamt icon kamu kedalam kotak "Smile image URL", kalo kamu tidak punya iconnya atau alamatnya kamu bisa gunakan alamat icon2 dibawah ini.
5. Trus masukkan "kode" (shorcut) kedalam kotak disebelahnya trus klik tombol "ADD"
6. Lakukan terus seperti itu sampai semua icon smile yang kamu inginkan masuk dalam daftar.
7. Kalo sudah klik tombol "Save Setting"

Nha coba kamu lihat blog kamu, trus lihat dishoutboxnya maka kamu sudah punya tambahan emoticon dalm shoutbox kamu.

Berikut ini daftar emoticon beserta alamat URL-nya :


Oh ya lupa, maksimal icon smile yg dapat kita tambahkan adalah 10 biji, ini buat yg gratisan, kalo buat yg premium bisa nyampe 500 biji. Selengkapnya...


Pasti pada bingung nih, apa maksudnya dan kenapa judulnya begitu, sebenarnya aku sendiri juga bingung mau ngasih judul apa untuk trik yang berikut ini. Setelah aku pikir-pikir :t eee.. nggak nemu-nemu juga judul yang cocok, ya udah deh aku asal aja kasih judul gitu. Trus apa maksudnya dari judul tersebut dan trik apa yang akan dibahas?
Gini, untunya itu gini :D trik nyoba ngebahas gimana cara membuat "ANU" itu selalu berada di pojok (bisa atas, bawah, kiri, kanan) meskipun "scroll bar" ditarik kemana-mana. "Scroll bar" itu apa sih? itu lho kotak kecil panjang yang ada disamping itu, yg biasanya ditarik kebawah dan keatas supaya bisa ngelihat isi blog yang kepanjangan. Trus maksudnya "ANU" itu apa? "ANU" itu maksudnya bisa gambar atau photo kamu, animasi, Jam, Hit Counter, Shoutbox, Kalender, Adsense, Iklan, Widget-widget dan lain-lain. Kalo untuk di blog ini aku pasang gambar sonic yg sedang lari-lari (pojok kiri bawah). Nha udah tahu kan maksudnya. Kalo dah tahu dan pingin mencobanya mari ikuti trik berikut ini:

1. Login ke blogger trus klik "Layout -->> Edit HTML
2. Cari kode ini ]]> kalo dah ketemu taru kode berikut ini di atasnya.

#trik_pojok {
position:fixed;_position:absolute;bottom:0px; left:0px;
document.documentElement.clientHeight-this.clientHeight); _left:expression(document.documentElement.scrollLeft+ document.documentElement.clientWidth - offsetWidth); }

3. Text yang dicetak tebal adalah posisinya, kalo pingin ganti di posisi pojok kanan bawah tinggal text "left" diganti dengan "right". Begitu juga tulisan "bottom", jika pingin di posisi atas bisa diganti dengan "top".
4. Langkah selanjutnya yaitu letekkan script berikut ini sebelum kode

"http://trik-tips.blogspot.com" adalah link. ganti dengan link kamu.
"http://kendhin.890m.com/soniclari.gif" adalh lokasi gambarmu. ganti dengan lokasi gambar kamu.

5. Jika kamu pingin yang ada disitu bukan gambar tetapi jam/kalender/hit counter/widget-widget yg lain, maka ganti text yang berwarna merah dengan script widget-widget tersebut.
6. Simpan hasil kerja kamu dan lihat hasilnya. Selengkapnya...


Biasanya postingan terbaru akan ditampilkan dihalaman utama blog. Namun jika postingan kamu terlalu panjang maka hal tersebut akan membuat penuh halaman utama. Jika kamu ingin supaya postingan kamu yang ditampilkan dihalaman utama cuma abstraksinya saja kemudian ada sebuah link Read More / Baca Selengkapnya untuk melihat selengkapnya maka ikutilah langkah-langkah berikut :

1. Buka menu Layout kemudian pilih Edit HTML.
2. Kasih tanda cek (centang) pada cekbox "expand widget template"
3. Cari kode berikut di Template blog kamu (tempatnya kira-kira pada 1/4 bagian bawah kode hmtl) :

4. Kalau sudah ketemu, Ganti kode kode tersebut sehingga menjadi seperti ini:

Read More......

Tulisan "Read More....." itu bisa kamu rubah, misalnya jadi "Baca Selengkapnya".

5. Simpan hasil pengeditan.
6. Kemudian pilih menu Setting lalu pilih Formatting
7. Pada kotak Post Template isikan kode berikut:

8. Kemudian Simpan.
9. Ketika memposting, kan disana ada 2 tab pilihan tuh, yang "Compose" dan "Edit Html", Nha km pilih Yang "Edit HTML", Maka secara otomatis akan tampak kode seperti berikut :

10. Letakkan abstraksi posting atau artikel yang akan ditampilkan dihalama utama (sebelum tulisan "Redmore") diatas kode ini : < span class="fullpost" > sementara sisanya yaitu keseluruhan posting letakkan di antara kode dan
11. Ini yang paling penting diantara semua proses diatas yaitu ..... Selesai..... he..he..he.. :D
Selamat Mencoba... Selengkapnya...